倒裝句


倒裝句 -描述

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主語和謂語是句子的核心,它們之間有兩種語序:一是主語在謂語之前稱為自然語序(Natural Order);二是主語在謂語之後則稱為倒裝語序(Inverted Order)。而倒裝語序中又有全部倒裝(Full Inversion)和部分倒裝(Partial Inversion)兩種情況。
首先,在全部倒裝的句子中,要把整個謂語放在主語的前面去而構成倒裝語序。
例如:
There are large numbers of students in the lecture hall.
(在There be…的句式中,There隻是個引導詞而不是主語,真正的主語是後面作表語的名詞或者名詞短語。因此,There be…的句式都是全部倒裝的句子。)演講廳裏有大量的學生。
When he ran to the door, there stood a mid-aged man with a lantern in his hand .
(此句是為瞭"描述情節的需要",把倒裝當著修辭的手段而寫成瞭全部倒裝句。句子的主語是a mid-aged man,謂語是stood 。)當他向房門跑去時,那兒正立著一位手裏拿著一盞燈籠的中年男人。另外,在部分倒裝的句子中,隻把謂語的一部分(如情態動詞、助動詞、或是系動詞be)放到主語的前面去,構成倒裝語序。例如:
Are you going to take part in the football match against Accounting Department on Friday afternoon? (句子的謂語是are going to take part,are是句子的謂語的一部分;句子的主語是you 。所以,此句是部分倒裝的句子。疑問句都是部分倒裝句。)你打算去參加星期五與會計系進行的足球賽嗎?
Hardly could he finish his test paper when the school bell rang .(由於語法要求的原因,本句寫成瞭部分倒裝的句子。它的自然語序應該是:When the bell rang, he could hardly finish his test paper.)他還未做完試卷,下課鈴就響瞭。瞭解瞭倒裝語序的構成情況後,我們再來看看倒裝語序在各種不同類句子中的

倒裝句 -使用情況


A. 在疑問句中
各種疑問句一般地說都是倒裝語序。例如:
Will they come to see us this weekend ? 這個周末他們將來看我們嗎?
Are you talking about the film you saw last Monday ?
你們是在談論你們上周一看的那部電影嗎?
Can you speak another foreign language except English?
除開英語,你還能說另一種外語嗎?Where did you buy the dictionary, in the book store nearby or in Xinhua bookstore?
你在哪兒買的這本詞典,是在附近的書店還是在新華書店?
She is not a student, isn’t she ? 她不是個學生,對嗎?
B. 在感嘆句中
某些感嘆句也用倒裝語序。例如: Isn’t it a beautiful garden ! 多麼美麗的花園啊!
What a beautiful garden it is ! 多麼美麗的花園啊!(在這種句式中,主語在謂語之前,屬於自然語序。對於主語和謂語而言,語序沒有倒裝。)Have you ever seen such a naughty kid like him ! 你見過那個孩子像他這麼調皮!
C. 在陳述句中
陳述句在一般情況下用自然語序;但由於英語語法的某些原因,陳述句也要使用倒裝語序。這些原因大致可以歸納如下:
1) 為瞭避免句子部分內容不必要的重復,常用"so + be動詞(助動詞、情態動詞)+主語"或"neither / nor + be動詞(助動詞、情態動詞)+主語"的倒裝句式。其中第一個句式表示"與前面所述的肯定情況相同", 第二個句式表示"與前面所述的否定情況相同"。例如:
His brother is a college student; so is mine.
他弟弟是大學生,我弟弟也是。
His brother is not a college student; nor is min .
他弟弟不是大學生,我弟弟也不是。
He used to have his further study abroad; so did I.
他曾去國外深造過,我也去過。
He didn’t use to have his further study abroad; neither did I.
他沒去國外深造過,我也沒有。
One of my friends can speak three foreign languages; so can his wife.
我的一個朋友會說三門外國語,他的妻子也會。
One of my friends cannot speak three foreign languages; neither can his wife .我的一個朋友不會說三門外國語,他的妻子也不會。They are now preparing for their final examinations; so are we .
他們正在為期末考試作準備,我們也一樣。
They are not now preparing for their final examinations; nor are we .
他們沒在為期末考試作準備,我們也沒有。2)具有否定意義的詞或短語置於句首時(除否定詞修飾主語外),句子一般要寫成部分倒裝句。這類詞或短語常見的有:not, never, seldom, hardly, rarely, scarcely, by no means, under no circumstances, in no way, at no time, no sooner … (than), hardly … (when), not only … (but also), not until… ,等。例如:
Hardly had she sat down when she heard someone knocking at the door .
她還沒來得及坐下來,就聽見有人敲門。
Not until twelve o’clock did he go to bed last night .
他昨晚直到十二點鐘才睡覺。
Never have my sisters been to Hong Kong before .
我的妹妹們以前從未去過香港。
No sooner had I returned home from New Zealand than I bought a house and went to live there.我從紐西蘭一回國,就買瞭一棟房子並在那兒住下瞭。
So far as I know, seldom does Mary come back to see her mother.就我所知,瑪利幾乎很難回來看她媽媽。
Scarcely a drop of rain fell here last fall . (否定詞修飾主語時,句子不用倒裝。) 去年秋天,這兒幾乎沒下一滴雨。
3)當so, often, only等表示程度、頻率的副詞放在句首時,句子一般要倒裝。例如:Only in this way can you come up with a solution to the problem.
隻有這樣,你才有可能想出解決這個問題的辦法。
So serious was the situation that everybody faced a test.
形勢如此地嚴峻,每個人都面臨著一場考驗。
So hard did he overwork that he fell ill at last. 他太操勞過度以致最後病倒瞭。
4)當there, here, then, now等副詞在句首,且謂語是come, go, be等動詞時,句子一般要全部倒裝。其意義在於引起他人的注意。如果這類句子的主語是代詞,則不用寫成倒裝句。例如:Now, here goes the story.這個故事是這樣的。
Look, there comes the taxi.瞧,的士過來瞭。Then came another question.然後又一個問題提出來瞭。
Then followed the four-year War of Liberation.接下來是四年的解放戰爭。
5) 當out, in, away, up, bang等表示方位或擬聲詞放在句首時,句子一般要全部倒裝。這類子比自然語序的句子更為生動、形象。但如果這類句子的主語是代詞,則不用寫成倒裝句。例如:
Bang goes my ace.我砰地一下打出瞭"愛司"。
Away flew the bird.那鳥飛走瞭。
Suddenly, in came a man with a mask on his face.
突然進來一個蒙著面具的人。6) 其他情況還有:省略瞭if的虛擬條件句、某些表示祝願的句子、以及某些讓步狀語從句,等等也要用倒裝句式。例如:(省略瞭if的虛擬條件句)Had they not helped us, we could not have done it so successfully.
如果沒有他們的幫助,我們不可能把那件事辦的如此成功。
Should he come, say “Nobody in" to him.
萬一他來瞭,對他說:"公司沒人。"(某些表示祝願的句子)
May our friendship last forever.願我們的友誼常存!
May your company become prosperous.祝貴公司生意興隆!(某些讓步狀語從句)
Try as I might, I couldn’t lift the stone.無論我使多大的勁,我也無法搬起那塊石頭。
They said they would follow the Party’s lead come what might.
他們說無論發生什麼情況,他們都會跟黨走的。7) 由於修辭或是平衡句子的原因也可以用倒裝句;也可以不用。這不是一條必須的規定。
Next to this one is another grand hotel which is beautifully decorated .
傢飯店隔壁還有一傢裝修華麗的大飯店。
On either side of the great avenue stood many block buildings.
這條大街的兩側都聳立著許多綜合樓。(這類句子也可以不用倒裝句。)
“I’m leaving for Beijing tomorrow," said Tom to his mother (OR: Tom said to his mother) .湯姆對他媽媽說:"我明天動身去北京。"
Many block buildings stood on either side of the great avenue.
許多綜合樓聳立在這條大街的兩側。
Another grand hotel, which is beautifully decorated, is next to this one .
這傢飯店隔壁還有一傢大飯店,那傢飯店裝修十分華麗。

英語學習